International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences
Volume 2004 (2004), Issue 19, Pages 1003-1023

A discrete and finite approach to past physical reality

Wolfgang Orthuber

Klinik für Kieferorthopädie der Universität Kiel, Arnold-Heller Street 16, Kiel 24105, Germany

Received 25 December 2002

Copyright © 2004 Wolfgang Orthuber. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper is a synthesis of previously published material on the topic. We show that an adequate mathematical model for the physical (i.e., perceptible and therefore past) reality must be finite. A finite approach to past proper time is given. Proper time turns out to be proportional to the sum of the return probabilities of a Bernoulli random walk.