
SIGMA 20 (2024), 040, 30 pages arXiv:2205.13912
https://doi.org/10.3842/SIGMA.2024.040
CoAxial Metrics on the Sphere and Algebraic Numbers
Zhijie Chen ^{a}, ChangShou Lin ^{b} and Yifan Yang ^{c}
^{a)} Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yau Mathematical Sciences Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China
^{b)} Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
^{c)} Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan University and National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Received November 07, 2023, in final form May 09, 2024; Published online May 20, 2024
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the following curvature equation
$$\Delta u+{\rm e}^u=4\pi\biggl((\theta_01)\delta_0+(\theta_11)\delta_1 +\sum_{j=1}^{n+m}\bigl(\theta_j'1\bigr)\delta_{t_j}\biggr)\qquad \text{in}\ \mathbb R^2,$$
$$u(x)=2(1+\theta_\infty)\lnx+O(1)\qquad \text{as} \ x\to\infty,$$
where $\theta_0$, $\theta_1$, $\theta_\infty$, and $\theta_{j}'$ are positive nonintegers for $1\le j\le n$, while $\theta_{j}'\in\mathbb{N}_{\geq 2}$ are integers for $n+1\le j\le n+m$. Geometrically, a solution $u$ gives rise to a conical metric ${\rm d}s^2=\frac12 {\rm e}^u{\rm d}x^2$ of curvature $1$ on the sphere, with conical singularities at $0$, $1$, $\infty$, and $t_j$, $1\le j\le n+m$, with angles $2\pi\theta_0$, $2\pi\theta_1$, $2\pi\theta_\infty$, and $2\pi\theta_{j}'$ at $0$, $1$, $\infty$, and $t_j$, respectively. The metric ${\rm d}s^2$ or the solution $u$ is called coaxial, which was introduced by Mondello and Panov, if there is a developing map $h(x)$ of $u$ such that the projective monodromy group is contained in the unit circle. The sufficient and necessary conditions in terms of angles for the existence of such metrics were obtained by MondelloPanov (2016) and Eremenko (2020). In this paper, we fix the angles and study the locations of the singularities $t_1,\dots,t_{n+m}$. Let $A\subset\mathbb{C}^{n+m}$ be the set of those $(t_1,\dots,t_{n+m})$'s such that a coaxial metric exists, among other things we prove that (i) If $m=1$, i.e., there is only one integer $\theta_{n+1}'$ among $\theta_j'$, then $A$ is a finite set. Moreover, for the case $n=0$, we obtain a sharp bound of the cardinality of the set $A$. We apply a result due to Eremenko, Gabrielov, and Tarasov (2016) and the monodromy of hypergeometric equations to obtain such a bound. (ii) If $m\ge 2$, then $A$ is an algebraic set of dimension $\leq m1$.
Key words: coaxial metric; location of singularities; algebraic set.
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