Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications (SIGMA)

SIGMA 6 (2010), 013, 52 pages      arXiv:0909.3759
Contribution to the Proceedings of the Workshop “Geometric Aspects of Discrete and Ultra-Discrete Integrable Systems”

Bethe Ansatz, Inverse Scattering Transform and Tropical Riemann Theta Function in a Periodic Soliton Cellular Automaton for An(1)

Atsuo Kuniba a and Taichiro Takagi b
a) Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
b) Department of Applied Physics, National Defense Academy, Kanagawa 239-8686, Japan

Received September 21, 2009; Published online January 31, 2010

We study an integrable vertex model with a periodic boundary condition associated with Uq(An(1)) at the crystallizing point q=0. It is an (n+1)-state cellular automaton describing the factorized scattering of solitons. The dynamics originates in the commuting family of fusion transfer matrices and generalizes the ultradiscrete Toda/KP flow corresponding to the periodic box-ball system. Combining Bethe ansatz and crystal theory in quantum group, we develop an inverse scattering/spectral formalism and solve the initial value problem based on several conjectures. The action-angle variables are constructed representing the amplitudes and phases of solitons. By the direct and inverse scattering maps, separation of variables into solitons is achieved and nonlinear dynamics is transformed into a straight motion on a tropical analogue of the Jacobi variety. We decompose the level set into connected components under the commuting family of time evolutions and identify each of them with the set of integer points on a torus. The weight multiplicity formula derived from the q=0 Bethe equation acquires an elegant interpretation as the volume of the phase space expressed by the size and multiplicity of these tori. The dynamical period is determined as an explicit arithmetical function of the n-tuple of Young diagrams specifying the level set. The inverse map, i.e., tropical Jacobi inversion is expressed in terms of a tropical Riemann theta function associated with the Bethe ansatz data. As an application, time average of some local variable is calculated.

Key words: soliton cellular automaton; crystal basis; combinatorial Bethe ansatz; inverse scattering/spectral method; tropical Riemann theta function.

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