Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications (SIGMA)

SIGMA 4 (2008), 009, 11 pages      arXiv:0801.4728
Contribution to the Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference Symmetry in Nonlinear Mathematical Physics

A Unified Model of Phantom Energy and Dark Matter

Max Chaves a and Douglas Singleton b
a) Escuela de Fisica Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
b) Physics Department, CSU Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740-8031, USA

Received November 01, 2007, in final form January 22, 2008; Published online January 30, 2008

To explain the acceleration of the cosmological expansion researchers have considered an unusual form of mass-energy generically called dark energy. Dark energy has a ratio of pressure over mass density which obeys w = p/ρ < −1/3. This form of mass-energy leads to accelerated expansion. An extreme form of dark energy, called phantom energy, has been proposed which has w = p/ρ < −1. This possibility is favored by the observational data. The simplest model for phantom energy involves the introduction of a scalar field with a negative kinetic energy term. Here we show that theories based on graded Lie algebras naturally have such a negative kinetic energy and thus give a model for phantom energy in a less ad hoc manner. We find that the model also contains ordinary scalar fields and anti-commuting (Grassmann) vector fields which act as a form of two component dark matter. Thus from a gauge theory based on a graded algebra we naturally obtained both phantom energy and dark matter.

Key words: dark energy; phantom energy; graded algebras.

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