Rachel Fletcher113 Division St. Great Barrington, MA 01230 USA
vesica piscis. Related by geometry
to the triangle, the vesica signifies the mediation of opposites
and is associated in Christian symbolism with the Trinity. We
explore its inherent three-ness through geometric constructions,
producing equiangular spirals and other proportional systems,
while we examine the elementary geometric Theorem of Thales and
the Law of Similar Triangles. We begin at the beginning, by drawing
a circle.
- With a compass, draw a circle, at any radius (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1
The circle stands for unity, oneness, eternity, wholeness, and completeness. The only form that encloses all other radially symmetrical or regular figures, it may connote pre-form, the genesis of form, origins or beginnings. The circle's circumference is closed and continuous and as such conveys continuous cycles of endings and beginnings. Circles may signify cycles of time such as: phases of the sun and moon; cycles of light and dark; and perpetual rhythms of sleeping and waking, birth and death, growth and decay, systole and diastole, and inhalation and exhalation. In its totality, the circle suggests the timeless whole. The moving point along the circle conveys the passage of time. Circles are measured relative to the incommensurable value
The circle expresses justice and democracy, since all of its points are equally distant from the center. A communal form, it imparts no sense of social hierarchy. The circle may symbolize the collective -- the ring that "unites man through the infinite chain of hands."[2] Some Christian churches, tribal ritual spaces, and the instinctive way in which children gather to play -- all take the form of the circle, drawing upon its magical and protective qualities and its sense of center and place. As a sacred space, the circle orients to the horizon and to the cosmic edges of the universe. Mircea Eliade observes that one gathers in a circle to distinguish what is known (cosmos) from what is unknown (chaos); to "'found the world' and to live in a real sense" [Eliade 1959, 23].
- With a compass, draw a circle, then a second circle of equal radius, such that the center of the second circle lies on the circumference of the first. The vesica piscis is the womb-like area that is shared between the two circles (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2
The vesica piscis signifies the mediation of two distinct entities; the complementariness of polar opposites, as when two extremes complete and depend upon one another to exist. One circle may signify the breath of spirit, which is eternal; the other may signify the body physical, which is forever changing and adapting, The vesica piscis itself symbolizes that which mediates spirit and body; or the psyche or soul. In another way, the vesica piscis may represent the phenomenon of color, which Goethe understands to mediate "light and its absence." He notes that we perceive "all the varieties of hues" when "the greatest brightness…acts near the greatest darkness" [Goethe 1970, 5, 206]. "Vesica piscis" is the Latin The pisces symbol As a Christian symbol, the vesica piscis may signify Christ Incarnate, who mediates heaven and earth, or humanity and the divine. In Medieval Christian art, Christ is commonly depicted emerging from a vesica piscis to portray the entry of transcendent form into the physical world and made flesh [Williams 2001]. The vesica piscis can also signify the womb -- in Christianity, the womb of the Virgin from which Christ emerges. The proportions of the vesica piscis appear in the Gothic arch and underlie rectangular floor plans of numerous churches and chapels, such as the Mary Chapel in Glastonbury Abbey. Some vernacular cultures combine images of sun and moon in the form of a vesica piscis. The full disk of the sun, which radiates its own permanent golden light, represents the unifying state of "solar" consciousness in which reality is perceived as eternal and One. In contrast to the sun, the sharp and cutting edge of the crescent moon may signify the division of unity into different parts. The moon continually changes as it progresses through various phases. Its silvery light is the surface reflection of other bodies. Together, the sun and moon convey complementary polarities of self and other, sameness and difference, and one whole and many parts (Fig. 3). Fig. 3
- Draw a vesica piscis from two circles of radius 1 (AB).
- Locate its short and long axes (AB and CD).
The short, horizontal axis equals the radius of the vesica's generating circles. The short and long axes are in the ratio l : Ö3, or 1: 1.7320508….. If the short axis (AB) equals 1, the long axis (CD) equals Ö3 (Fig. 4). Fig. 4 - Connect points ABC, above and ABD, below.
The result is two equilateral triangles.[3] If the half side (OB) of the equilateral triangle (ABC) is 1, the altitude (OC) equals Ö3.[4] (Fig. 5). Fig. 5 The vesica piscis shares a common geometry with the equilateral triangle and may signify the Holy Trinity and other triadic relationships.
- Draw a vesica piscis from two circles of radius 1 (AB).
- Locate the vertical diameters (EF and GH) of each generating circle.
- Connect points ABGE, above, and ABHF, below. The result is two squares.
- Draw the diagonal BE through the square ABGE.
Fig. 6
- Draw a vesica piscis from two circles of radius 1.
- Locate the vertical diameters (EF and GH) of each generating circle.
- Connect points FHGE. The result is a double square.
- Draw the diagonal HE.
If the side (FH) is 1, the diagonal (HE) equals Ö5, or 2.236067... (Fig. 7). Fig. 7 - Draw the horizontal axis IJ through the centers of the two circles (points A and B).
- From the midpoint of diagonal EH (point O), draw a line OH. If the short axis of the vesica (AB) is 1, segment OH equals (Ö5/2).
- Place the compass point at O. Draw an arc of radius OH, intersecting the horizontal axis IJ on the right, at point K.
If the short axis of the vesica (AB) is 1, segment AK equals
Fig. 8
Fig. 9 Incommensurable ratios may organize space so that the same proportion persists continually through endless divisions. This quality of continuity, which Jay Hambidge calls "dynamic symmetry," is unique to the incommensurables and implies that every level of form, from the micro- to the macrocosmic, may be united through measure and proportion [Hambidge 1960; 1967].
- Draw a vesica piscis from two circles of radius 1 (AB).
- Locate the short and long axes (AB and CD).
The short and long axes of the vesica piscis equal 1 and Ö3 (Fig. 10). Fig. 10Draw a new vesica piscis from two circles of radius CD: - Place the compass point at C. Draw a circle of radius CD.
- Then, place the compass point on D. Draw a second circle of radius DC.
The short and long axes of the new vesica (CD and EF) equal Ö3 and 3 (Fig. 11). Fig. 11 Draw a new vesica piscis from two circles of radius EF: - Place the compass point at E. Draw a circle of radius EF.
- Then, place the compass point on F. Draw a second circle of radius FE.
The short and long axes of the new vesica (EF and GH) equal 3 and 3 Ö3 (Fig. 12). Fig. 12 - Within each vesica piscis, draw two equilateral triangles (Fig. 13).
Fig. 13 - Connect sides AD, DF, FG, and GI from each successive set of triangles.
The spiral that results follows a 1: Ö3 geometric progression (Fig. 14). Fig. 14
- From point F, draw a line through point D, until it intersects the large circle on the left at point K.
- Connect points FGIK.
The result is a rectangle (FGIK) with short and long sides in the ratio l : Ö3 (Fig. 15). Fig. 15 - From point D, draw a line through point A, until it intersects line GI at point L.
The result is a smaller rectangle (DFGL) in the ratio 1/Ö3 : 1 or l : Ö3. Rectangle DFGL is the reciprocal of the whole rectangle FGIK (Fig. 16). Fig. 16
- From point N, draw a line that is perpendicular to line FK and intersects line GI at point M.
The rectangles NDLM and KNMI that result are each in the ratio 1/Ö3 : 1 or l : Ö3. The major l : Ö3 rectangle FGIK divides into three reciprocals that are proportionally smaller in the ratio l : Ö3 (Fig. 17). Fig. 17 - From point A, draw a line that is perpendicular to line LD and intersects line GF at point P.
The result is a smaller rectangle (ADFP) in the ratio 1/3 : 1/Ö3 or l : Ö3 (Fig. 18). Fig. 18 - From point Q, draw a line that is perpendicular to line LD and intersects line GF at point R.
The rectangles QAPR and LQRG that result are each in the ratio 1/3 : 1/Ö3 or l : Ö3. The major l : Ö3 (or 1/Ö3 : 1) rectangle DFGL divides into three reciprocals that are proportionally smaller in the ratio l : Ö3 (Fig. 19). Fig. 19 Such constructions illustrate how incommensurable ratios replicate consistently through endless spatial divisions, even as the identical ratio remains present in the relationship of one level to the next. A l x Ö3 rectangle of any size divides into three proportionally smaller reciprocals in the ratio l : Ö3. If the process continues indefinitely, the side lengths of successively larger rectangles form a perfect geometric progression (l ,Ö3 , 3, 3Ö3…). "Dynamic symmetry" is the name given by Jay Hambidge to this proportioning principle, which he finds in l x Ö3 and other root rectangles, and observes in the human figure, in plant life, and in classical Greek and other forms of art. Hambidge associates dynamic symmetry with our perception of beauty, noting "its power of transition and movement from one form to another...It produces the only perfect modulating process in any of the arts" [Hambidge 1967, xv-vxi]. Of symmetry, Hambidge says, "using the word in the Greek sense of analogy; literally it signifies the relationship which the composing elements of form in design, or in any organism of nature, bear to the whole. In design, it is the thing which governs the just balance of variety in unity" [Hambidge 1967, xii]. We will now explore how dynamic symmetry and l : Ö3 proportions manifest in other ways. - Locate the diagonal (IF) of the rectangle FGIK.
- Locate the diagonal (GD) of the reciprocal DFGL.
GD: IF :: 1: Ö3. The diagonals IF and GD intersect at 90° at point O (Fig. 20). Fig. 20
An equiangular spiral is a spiral curve in which distinct radii vectors emanating from the pole at equal angles to one another are in continual proportion. Between any three consecutive radii vectors, the middle vector is the mean proportional or geometric mean of the other two. The spiral that results grows in size continuously without changing its shape. It is also called a logarithmic spiral or proportional spiral.[5] - Locate the equiangular spiral of straight-line segments AD, DF, FG and GI.
- Locate the pole of the spiral at point O.
- Locate the radii vectors OA, OD, OF, OG, and OI.
The radii vectors are separated by equal angles (90°). Their lengths increase in a 1: Ö3 geometric progression. Equiangular spirals such as IGFDA decrease continuously towards the pole, but never touch it (Fig. 21). Fig. 21
- Draw a semi-circle on the diameter CA.
- Locate a point (B) anywhere along the perimeter.
- From point B, draw lines to points C and A.
The triangle CBA is a right triangle. - From point B draw a line (BO) that is perpendicular to the diameter CA.
Line BO is the mean proportional or geometric mean of lines OA and OC (Fig. 22). Fig. 22 Thales of Miletus (ca. 624-547 B.C.), considered the first
Greek mathematician, is thought to have learned geometry from
the Egyptians. He is credited with the theorem that any triangle
inscribed within a semi-circle is right-angled. The Triangles are similar that have corresponding angles equal
and corresponding segments proportional. The
Equiangular spirals demonstrate the Theorem of Thales and the Law of Similar Triangles. In Fig. 21: - Locate the equiangular spiral of straight-line segments AD, DF, FG and GI.
- On line IF, construct a semi-circle.
- Locate point G on the perimeter of the semi-circle.
- From point G, draw lines to points F and I (lines GF and GI of the spiral).
The triangle IGF is a right triangle. - From point G on the semi-circle, draw a line GO perpendicular to line IF.
Triangles GOF, IOG and IGF are similar. Line OG is the mean proportional or geometric mean of lines OF and OI (Fig. 23). Fig. 23 - Locate the equiangular spiral of straight-line segments AD, DF, FG and GI.
- On line GD, construct a semi-circle.
- Locate point F on the perimeter of the semi-circle.
- From point F, draw lines to points D and G (lines FD and FG of the spiral).
The triangle GFD is a right triangle. - From point F on the semi-circle, draw a line FO perpendicular to line GD.
Triangles FOD, GOF and GFD are similar. Line OF is the mean proportional or geometric mean of lines OD and OG (Fig. 24). Fig. 24
I quattro libri (The Four Books on Architecture),
which is otherwise dedicated to classical temples of the ancients.Sebastiano Serlio's Fig. 25 - Draw the circle that traces the dome's exterior surface.
- Draw a square about the circle.
- From the top edge of the square, draw a downward pointing equilateral triangle.
The bottom apex of the triangle locates the top of the balcony rail and the base of the second story. - At this location, draw a vesica piscis from two circles whose radii equal the diameter of the circle of the dome.
The base of the vesica piscis locates the floor level of the
temple. The top of the vesica piscis locates the top of the dome.
[2] R. Schwarz, [3] For proof, see Euclid, Book I, Prop. 1: "On
a given finite straight line to construct an equilateral triangle"
[Euclid 1956, I: 241-242]. [4] For proof, apply the Pythagorean theorem (OB [5] [Thompson 1992, 748-758]; [Hambidge 1967, 5-6].
D'Arcy Thompson describes equiangular spirals as "any plane
curve proceeding from a fixed point (or pole), and such that
the vectorial area of any sector is always a gnomon to the whole
preceding figure" [1992, 763]. "Gnomon," the post
that marks the time of day by the shadow it casts on a sundial,
is from the Greek BIBLIOGRAPHY Euclid. 1956. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. 1970. Hambidge, Jay. l960. ______. l967. Harper, Douglas,ed. 2001. Herodotus. 1998. Hoad, T. F., ed. 1996. Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott, eds
1940. Norberg-Schulz, Christian. 1972. Palladio, Andrea. 1997. Serlio, Sebastiano. 1544. Simpson, John and Edmund Weiner, eds. 1989.
Thompson, D'Arcy Wentworth. 1992. Williams, Kim. 2001. The Shape of Divinity.
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of pageCopyright ©2004 Kim Williams
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