Citation Guidelines


Using BibTeX for references

The formatting of the references will be automatically done. You only need to provide the bibliographic data using the appropriate BibTeX fields. If you have used only LaTeX for your references so far, please, consider using BibTeX for your references, a format which is easy to read and to maintain.

See a complete list of entry types (document types) with their required and optional bibliographic information.

Installing the bibliography style file

Download the bibliography style file livrevrel.bst if you have not done so already (it is included in the LaTeX template). Store it in the same directory where your Living Reviews article is located.

In the LaTeX source, livrevrel.bst should be loaded right after the document class declaration:




At the point in the article where the bibliography begins, you need to include the comand:


where bibfilename is the name of your BibTeX file.

To compile the LaTeX run:

latex article.tex
bibtex article
latex article.tex
latex article.tex

Note that the bibtex command requires requires the filename without the file type ending.

The file livrevrel.bst is built on the BibTeX style file plainnat.bst provided by the natbib package. livrevrel.bst has additonal entry types and additional fields to accomodate Living Reviews specific needs. These new entry types and fields will be ignored by other BibTeX style files.

General style rules

  • Use of et al. Do not use “et al.” to abbreviate long author lists, if you can possibly avoid it. All the names should be available for a search in the database.
  • Titles of articles, books, etc. are important in a review journal. They help to guide users to the relevant literature. Make sure you include the titles in your references.
  • Journal Names. Use our standard set of name abbreviations. See the already existing abbreviations in the reference database. In case you do not find the journal name there include the full name with the reference.
  • Page Numbers. Include beginning and ending page numbers if possible (e.g. 123-321). For electronic publications, an “eid” often replaces page numbers.
  • Electronic Information. If you provide the URL of an online resource you have to include the date of citation, i.e. the date you visited the site.

Additional entry types and fields

Living Reviews uses 13 basic types of documents. You will be familiar with the most. We have also added fields to accommodate information on electronic documents and online versions to print documents.

See a complete list of entry types with their required and optional bibliographic information.

New entry types are:

  • online – for documents that are only available in electronic form other than preprint.
  • preprint – for articles only available on a preprint server.

New fields are:

entry type: online
possible values: conference homepage, image, institutional homepage, institutional repository, lecture notes, personal homepage, project homepage, web interface to database, other
entry type: unpublished
possible values: submitted, accepted, in review, in preparation, conference paper, unknown
entry type: misc
possible values: personal communication, data medium, unknown
Use with a URL in field url or in field onlineversion. Not needed for adsurl, eprint, doi or gbs_id.
Date at which a cited online-resource was accessed by the author citing it.
onlineversion or url
Use onlineversion for alternatives to printed sources. Use url for sources that are exclusively available online.
Add the URL of the onlineversion.
Google books id.
You may include a link to google books. Just include the id part of the url (no cited date needed).

For example, from extract gbs_id = 1JZ2mSQ-O6MC .