Vol. 16 (2013) > lrr-2013-1

doi: 10.12942/lrr-2013-1
Living Rev. Relativity 16 (2013), 1

Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

1 Physics Department, Göteborg University, SE-412-96 Göteborg, Sweden and N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, PL-00-716 Warszawa, Poland
2 Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424, USA

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Article Abstract

This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

Keywords: black hole accretion disks

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Since a Living Reviews in Relativity article may evolve over time, please cite the access <date>, which uniquely identifies the version of the article you are referring to:

Marek A. Abramowicz and P. Chris Fragile,
"Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory",
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Article History

ORIGINAL http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2013-1
Title Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory
Author Marek A. Abramowicz / P. Chris Fragile
Date accepted 15 November 2012, published 14 January 2013
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