Vol. 13 (2010) > lrr-2010-5

doi: 10.12942/lrr-2010-5
Living Rev. Relativity 13 (2010), 5

Brane-World Gravity

1 Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Portsmouth University, Portsmouth PO12EG, U.K.
2 Institute of Cosmology & Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, U.K.

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Article Abstract

The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the “brane”) embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the “bulk”), with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (∼ TeV) level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity “leaks” into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall–Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies – the 5-dimensional Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.

Keywords: M theory, Brane-world models

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Since a Living Reviews in Relativity article may evolve over time, please cite the access <date>, which uniquely identifies the version of the article you are referring to:

Roy Maartens and Kazuya Koyama,
"Brane-World Gravity",
Living Rev. Relativity 13,  (2010),  5. URL (cited on <date>):

Article History

ORIGINAL http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2004-7
Title Brane-World Gravity
Author Roy Maartens
Date accepted 29 April 2004, published 21 June 2004
UPDATE http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2010-5
Title Brane-World Gravity
Author Roy Maartens / Kazuya Koyama
Date accepted 6 September 2010, published 14 September 2010
Changes Inserted subsections on numerical solutions in Sections 6 and 7 and five figures. Added new Subsection 2.2 on the Randall–Sundrum model in string theory. Added new Section 9 on Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati models and nine figures. Added new Section 10 on 6-dimensional models and one figure. Added about 100 new references.
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