Vol. 2 (1999) > lrr-1999-2

doi: 10.12942/lrr-1999-2
Living Rev. Relativity 2 (1999), 2

Quasi-Normal Modes of Stars and Black Holes

1 Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IAAT) of the Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, Germany
2 Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Golm, Germany

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Article Abstract

Perturbations of stars and black holes have been one of the main topics of relativistic astrophysics for the last few decades. They are of particular importance today, because of their relevance to gravitational wave astronomy. In this review we present the theory of quasi-normal modes of compact objects from both the mathematical and astrophysical points of view. The discussion includes perturbations of black holes (Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, Kerr and Kerr-Newman) and relativistic stars (non-rotating and slowly-rotating). The properties of the various families of quasi-normal modes are described, and numerical techniques for calculating quasi-normal modes reviewed. The successes, as well as the limits, of perturbation theory are presented, and its role in the emerging era of numerical relativity and supercomputers is discussed.


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Since a Living Reviews in Relativity article may evolve over time, please cite the access <date>, which uniquely identifies the version of the article you are referring to:

Kostas D. Kokkotas and Bernd G. Schmidt,
"Quasi-Normal Modes of Stars and Black Holes",
Living Rev. Relativity 2,  (1999),  2. URL (cited on <date>):

Article History

ORIGINAL http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-1999-2
Title Quasi-Normal Modes of Stars and Black Holes
Author Kostas D. Kokkotas / Bernd G. Schmidt
Date accepted 31 August 1999, published 16 September 1999
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