Journal of Theoretical Medicine
Volume 2 (2000), Issue 4, Pages 245-265

Assessing Effects of HIV Heterogeneity and Macrophage on the HIV Pathogenesis in HIV-Infected Individuals

Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA

Received 22 November 1998; Accepted 9 August 1999

Copyright © 2000 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Model of HIV pathogenesis in HIV-infected individuals under very general conditions. In this model, we have considered five different types of CD4(+) T cells, two different types of HIV (M-tropic versus T-tropic) as well as infected and un-infected macrophage. This is a 9-dimensional stochastic process. For this process, we have developed stochastic differential equations for different types of cells. By using these stochastic equations, we have generated some Monte Carlo data to study the stochastic behavior of the HIV pathogenesis and the HIV progression.

Through Monte Carlo studies, we have revealed an acute infection stage in the early stage of the HIV infection and have confirmed the basic role played by lymph nodes and some long-lived cells such as macrophage in serving as reservoirs of HIV to escape elimination by the immune system during the long asymptomatic stage of HIV infection. The Monte Carlo results have shown that the HIV heterogeneity and diversity may be a major factor to determine the time period since infection for uninfected T cells to drop to below 200/mm3 of blood. The numerical results have also confirmed our previous findings (see [1]) which concluded that the probability distributions of T cells and free HIV can be classified into three periods over time: The latent period, the transition period and the pseudo-steady period.