Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 520296, 13 pages
Research Article

Bifurcations in a Generalization of the ZAD Technique: Application to a DC-DC Buck Power Converter

1Percepción y Control Inteligente, Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Facultad de Ingeniería y Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Electrónica y Computación, Bloque Q, Campus La Nubia, Manizales, Colombia
2ABC Dynamics, Departamento de Matemáticas y Estadística, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Bloque Y, Campus La Nubia, Manizales, Colombia

Received 21 March 2012; Accepted 30 April 2012

Academic Editor: Ahmad M. Harb

Copyright © 2012 Ludwing Torres et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A variation of ZAD technique is proposed, which is to extend the range of zero averaging of the switching surface (in the classic ZAD it is taken in a sampling period), to a number 𝐾 of sampling periods. This has led to a technique that has been named 𝐾 -ZAD. Assuming a specific value for 𝐾 = 2 , we have studied the 2-ZAD technique. The latter has presented better results in terms of stability, regarding the original ZAD technique. These results can be demonstrated in different state space graphs and bifurcation diagrams, which have been calculated based on the analysis done about the behavior of this new strategy.