Journal of Applied Mathematics and Decision Sciences
Volume 2006 (2006), Article ID 48632, 13 pages

The constrained gravity model with power function as a cost function

Bablu Samanta1 and Sanat Kumar Mazumder2

1Department of Engineering Science, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia, Midnapore (East) 721657, West Bengal, India
2Department of Mathematics, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah 711103, West Bengal, India

Received 25 August 2005; Revised 5 June 2006; Accepted 5 June 2006

Copyright © 2006 Bablu Samanta and Sanat Kumar Mazumder. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A gravity model for trip distribution describes the number of trips between two zones, as a product of three factors, one of the factors is separation or deterrence factor. The deterrence factor is usually a decreasing function of the generalized cost of traveling between the zones, where generalized cost is usually some combination of the travel, the distance traveled, and the actual monetary costs. If the deterrence factor is of the power form and if the total number of origins and destination in each zone is known, then the resulting trip matrix depends solely on parameter, which is generally estimated from data. In this paper, it is shown that as parameter tends to infinity, the trip matrix tends to a limit in which the total cost of trips is the least possible allowed by the given origin and destination totals. If the transportation problem has many cost-minimizing solutions, then it is shown that the limit is one particular solution in which each nonzero flow from an origin to a destination is a product of two strictly positive factors, one associated with the origin and other with the destination. A numerical example is given to illustrate the problem.