Journal of Applied Mathematics and Decision Sciences
Volume 2006 (2006), Article ID 10936, 19 pages

Using different ELECTRE methods in strategic planning in the presence of human behavioral resistance

A. S. Milani,1 A. Shanian,2 and C. El-Lahham3

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge 02139, MA, USA
2Department of Management and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Management Institute, Jam-e-Jam, Vali-i-Asr, Tehran 1999915511, Iran
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal H3A 2K6, PQ, Canada

Received 16 December 2005; Revised 26 June 2006; Accepted 24 July 2006

Copyright © 2006 A. S. Milani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the multicriteria strategic planning of an organization, management should often be aware of employees' resistance to change before making new decisions; otherwise, a chosen strategy, though technologically acceptable, may not be efficient in the long term. This paper, using a sample case study within an organization, shows how different versions of ELECTRE methods can be used in choosing efficient strategies that account for both human behavioral resistance and technical elements. The effect of resistance from each subsystem of the organization is studied to ensure the reliability of the chosen strategy. The comparison of results from a select number of compensatory and noncompensatory models (ELECTRE I, III, IV, IS; TOPSIS; SAW; MaxMin) suggests that when employee resistance is a decision factor in the multicriteria strategic planning problem, the models can yield low-resistance strategies; however, ELECTRE seems to show more reasonable sensitivity.