Journal of Applied Mathematics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 197186, 10 pages
Research Article

Fractional-Order Control of First Order Plants with Guaranteed Time Specifications

1Ayssel Mecatronica, St/Pedro Pardo 23, 13195 Poblete (Ciudad Real), Spain
2Department of Electrical, Electronics, Control Engineering and Communications, Castilla-La Mancha University, Av. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
3School of Industrial Engineering, Castilla-La Mancha University, Tecnology Campus ‘Antigua Fabrica de Armas’ s/n, 45071 Toledo, Spain

Received 25 January 2013; Revised 8 April 2013; Accepted 8 April 2013

Academic Editor: Martin J. Bohner

Copyright © 2013 F. J. Castillo-Garcia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cardiospheres (CSs) are self-assembling multicellular clusters from the cellular outgrowth from cardiac explants cultured in nonadhesive substrates. They contain a core of primitive, proliferating cells, and an outer layer of mesenchymal/stromal cells and differentiating cells that express cardiomyocyte proteins and connexin 43. Because CSs contain both primitive cells and committed progenitors for the three major cell types present in the heart, that is, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells, and because they are derived from percutaneous endomyocardial biopsies, they represent an attractive cell source for cardiac regeneration. In preclinical studies, CS-derived cells (CDCs) delivered to infarcted hearts resulted in improved cardiac function. CDCs have been tested safely in an initial phase-1 clinical trial in patients after myocardial infarction. Whether or not CDCs are superior to purified populations, for example, c-kit+ cardiac stem cells, or to gene therapy approaches for cardiac regeneration remains to be evaluated.