Journal of Applied Mathematics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 534275, 16 pages
Research Article

Mathematical Analysis of Inclusion Removal from Liquid Steel by Gas Bubbling in a Casting Tundish

Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Metallurgy Graduate Center, Av. Tecnologico No. 1500, 58120-Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico

Received 5 February 2012; Revised 16 April 2012; Accepted 27 April 2012

Academic Editor: M. F. El-Amin

Copyright © 2012 H. Arcos-Gutierrez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The mechanism of inclusion removal from liquid steel by gas bubbling and bubble attachment in the tundish is complex due to the great number of variables involved, and it is even more difficult to study because of the turbulent flow conditions. The main objective of this work is to analyze and improve the understanding of the alumina inclusion removal rate by bubble attachment and by gas bubbling fluid dynamics effects. The results show that the inclusion collection probability mainly depends on the attachment mechanism by collision. This parameter was determined by calculating the induction time, which is shorter when the rupture time and the formation time of a stable three phases contact (particle/liquid/gas) are ignored than when it is fully considered, affecting the attachment probability. In addition, to achieve acceptable inclusion removal, a smaller bubble diameter is required, such as 1 mm. This consideration is almost impossible to achieve during tundish operation; a more realistic bubble diameter around 10 mm is employed, resulting in a very inefficient inclusion removal process by bubble attachment. Nevertheless, in a real casting tundish the inclusion removal rate employing argon bubbling is efficient; is mainly due to the fluid flow pattern changes rather than bubble attachment. Consequently, it is imperative to consider the summation of both removal mechanisms to compute a better approximation of this important operation.