Journal of Applied Mathematics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 484759, 8 pages
Research Article

General Computational Model for Human Musculoskeletal System of Spine

1Department of Mathematics, Kyonggi University, Suwon 443-760, Republic of Korea
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Republic of Korea
3e-Spine Center, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Republic of Korea
4Department of Computer Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea

Received 30 September 2011; Accepted 14 November 2011

Academic Editor: Chang-Hwan Im

Copyright © 2012 Kyungsoo Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A general computational model of the human lumbar spine and trunk muscles including optimization formulations was provided. For a given condition, the trunk muscle forces could be predicted considering the human physiology including the follower load concept. The feasibility of the solution could be indirectly validated by comparing the compressive force, the shear force, and the joint moment. The presented general computational model and optimization technology can be fundamental tools to understand the control principle of human trunk muscles.