Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society
Volume 2007 (2007), Article ID 48720, 11 pages
Research Article

Whitening of Background Brain Activity via Parametric Modeling

Nidal Kamel,1 Andrews Samraj,2 and Arash Mousavi2

1Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750, Perak, Malaysia
2The Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, Melaka 75450, Malaysia

Received 12 April 2007; Accepted 10 June 2007

Copyright © 2007 Nidal Kamel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Several signal subspace techniques have been recently suggested for the extraction of the visual evoked potential signals from brain background colored noise. The majority of these techniques assume the background noise as white, and for colored noise, it is suggested to be whitened, without further elaboration on how this might be done. In this paper, we investigate the whitening capabilities of two parametric techniques: a direct one based on Levinson solution of Yule-Walker equations, called AR Yule-Walker, and an indirect one based on the least-squares solution of forward-backward linear prediction (FBLP) equations, called AR-FBLP. The whitening effect of the two algorithms is investigated with real background electroencephalogram (EEG) colored noise and compared in time and frequency domains.