Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 395081, 11 pages
Review Article

Left Ventricular Flow Analysis: Recent Advances in Numerical Methods and Applications in Cardiac Ultrasound

1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA
3Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA

Received 26 October 2012; Accepted 19 March 2013

Academic Editor: Eun Bo Shim

Copyright © 2013 Iman Borazjani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The left ventricle (LV) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body through systemic circulation. The efficiency of such a pumping function is dependent on blood flow within the LV chamber. It is therefore crucial to accurately characterize LV hemodynamics. Improved understanding of LV hemodynamics is expected to provide important clinical diagnostic and prognostic information. We review the recent advances in numerical and experimental methods for characterizing LV flows and focus on analysis of intraventricular flow fields by echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV), due to its potential for broad and practical utility. Future research directions to advance patient-specific LV simulations include development of methods capable of resolving heart valves, higher temporal resolution, automated generation of three-dimensional (3D) geometry, and incorporating actual flow measurements into the numerical solution of the 3D cardiovascular fluid dynamics.