Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 109497, 11 pages
Research Article

Trial-by-Trial Adaptation of Movements during Mental Practice under Force Field

Human Systems Laboratory (HSL), Department of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan

Received 14 January 2013; Revised 21 March 2013; Accepted 2 April 2013

Academic Editor: Yiwen Wang

Copyright © 2013 Muhammad Nabeel Anwar and Salman Hameed Khan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Human nervous system tries to minimize the effect of any external perturbing force by bringing modifications in the internal model. These modifications affect the subsequent motor commands generated by the nervous system. Adaptive compensation along with the appropriate modifications of internal model helps in reducing human movement errors. In the current study, we studied how motor imagery influences trial-to-trial learning in a robot-based adaptation task. Two groups of subjects performed reaching movements with or without motor imagery in a velocity-dependent force field. The results show that reaching movements performed with motor imagery have relatively a more focused generalization pattern and a higher learning rate in training direction.