Advances in Difference Equations
Volume 2006 (2006), Article ID 62579, 16 pages

Oscillation criteria for first-order forced nonlinear difference equations

Ravi P. Agarwal,1 Said R. Grace,2 and Tim Smith1

1Department of Mathematical Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne 32901, FL, USA
2Department of Engineering Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Orman, Giza 12221, Egypt

Received 11 August 2005; Revised 20 March 2006; Accepted 25 April 2006

Copyright © 2006 Ravi P. Agarwal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Some new criteria for the oscillation of first-order forced nonlinear difference equations of the form Δx(n)+q1(n)xμ(n+1)=q2(n)xλ(n+1)+e(n), where λ, μ are the ratios of positive odd integers 0<μ<1 and λ>1, are established.